The Effect of Financial Literacy and Digital Finance Used on Financial Inclusion on MSMEs in Bandung City


This research is motivated by the important role and features of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in surviving the economic crisis and the high contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as well as when compared to large businesses. Even though it has a big role, MSMEs still have some problems, one of which is limitations on financial literacy. Limited literacy is a challenge in itself, considering that financial literacy can increase the ability to manage finances and access available financial products. In addition, this study also includes the used of digital finance variables because the 4.0 revolution has entered into everything that is digital-based. In addition, using these variables is also due to the emergence of optimism about the adopted telephone and internet. The used of digital finance in this study focuses more on payments produced by financial institutions and financial technology companies.The effects of these two variables on financial inclusion will then be examined considering their role in reducing the limited access to available financial services and thus encouraging economic growth. The city of Bandung is used as a research area. Bandung City was choosen because the large number of MSMEs and Bandung City MSMEs have their own characteristics. Based on the Dinas Koperasi dan UMKM Kota Bandung (2018), there are 5.242 micro businesses in Bandung City, 23 medium scale businesses, and 394 small-scale businesses so that the total number is 5.841 MSMEs. The research method used is explanative to explain the relationship between variables through purposive sampling so that 56 respondents were obtained. The purposive sampling technique using the following considerations: categorized micro, small and medium enterprises, business activities in Bandung city, and willing to provide the necessary information. In variable measurement, financial literacy is measured by knowledge related to finance and financial services, actions in making financial decisions, the ability to manage finances, tell financial concepts, and attitude in responding to financial related matters based on Bongomin, Munene, Ntayi, and Malinga (2017), Bongomin et al. (2016), Nkundabanyanga, Kasozi, Nalukenge, and Tauringana (2014), Kartawinata and Mubaraq (2018), and Sina (2017). Measurement the used of digital financial variable adapted based on Azam (2015), Zhou, Lu, and Wang (2010), and Qian, (2019) which consisted of perceptions of ease, benefits received, perceptions of used transfer activities, payments, and account management. Likewise financial inclusion, the measurement of which was adapted from Bongomin et al. (2017) and Bongomin et al. (2016) which consists of the ability to access financial services, using financial services, the quality of financial services, and the benefits obtained when using financial services.The data in this study are primary data with a questionnaire for further analysis using Partial Least Square (PLS). The Likert scale used in this study consists of 4 scales. The answer options strongly disagree are given value 1, disagree is given value 2, agree is given value 3, and strongly agree is given value 4 (Hermawan & Yusran, 2017; Martono, 2016). These four scales to reduce a neutral choice answers that do not show partiality towards positive or negative which results in a tendency not argue. PLS is used as a causality testing analysis tool due to the similarity of objectives with the research conducted and its used which can manage small amounts of samples. The minimum sample size in PLS is 10 samples on each line jalur (Abdillah & Hartono, 2015). In testing the hypothesis, a confidence level of 90 percent is used. Validity testing uses loading scores, AVE values, comparing indicator’s loading and cross loading, and comparison AVE roots with correlation. In this study also use reliability testing with composite reliability and KR-21 considering that the measurements carried out in the study were one measurement.The results show both variables have a positive influence and a very strong level of significance on financial inclusion. This result also supported by very strong evidence that can be seen through the p-value for each relationship. The results of the research prove that barriers to accessing these services can be minimized through increasing financial literacy so that can increase financial inclusion and be more developed. Therefore, a common problem experienced by MSME actors, namely low financial literacy, is a serious problem that can be overcome with training or coaching as consideration for solutions considering that financial literacy can open financial access to be more developed. Touching MSMEs with the used of digital finance will automatically open their ability to access available payment financial services and increasing financial inclusion.


Financial literacy, used of digital finance, financial inclusion


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