The conceptualization of inclusive education more practical level than its basic concept. The purpose of this study is to dissect and trace Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s values and Vygotsky's dysontogenesis theory in the implementation of inclusive education. The research design used was ethnographic qualitative research. This ethnographic research used data collection methods: (1) Study of Vygotsky's theory documents, (2) Focus group disscussion, (3) Questionnaire to teachers, and policy makers.The results of the analysis of the position of Vygotsky's theory in the implementation of inclusive education in the concept of the dysontogenesis are focused on how children construct knowledge according to their culture and ways. The dysontogenesis concept which focuses on positive differentiation emerged around 1993 which in Indonesia itself had been developed by Ki Hadjar Dewantara in 1913-1919 the emphasis was on teaching according to the nature of the child. Ki Hadjar's philosophy is heavily influenced by Maria Montessori's thoughts which emphasize the value of children's independent activities and the importance of children's growth as individuals. In 1952 he created a "system of learning" approach. The system that supports the child's natural nature in order to develop inner and outer life according to his own nature. Knowledge and intelligence are only tools, the fruit is the maturity of the soul that can realize life and livelihood in an orderly, holy, and useful for others. The concepts of dysontogenesis and nature of the child are in harmony in looking at the cognitive and children's efforts in obtaining the concept of knowledge.
Inklusive education; Indigenus; Dysontogenesis; child nature