Literature review: implementation of scaffolding in project based learning models (project based learning)


The development of the times requires students to master 21st century skills, both knowledge, performance and character skills which are believed to be important to achieve a successful life. Another demand is to be able to apply knowledge in everyday life, in particular science learning which is usually done through practicum/project activities. This can be done by applying the Project Based Learning (PjBL) learning model, where students can be actively involved through project/practice work. However, this PjBL learning model is rarely applied in a learning process. So that in its implementation, intermediaries or temporary assistance (scaffolding) are needed to facilitate the implementation of project-based learning. Based on the articles that have been collected, information is obtained that the implementation of scaffolding through various media can facilitate the process and outcomes of PjBL learning. The existence of this scaffolding can organize PjBL implementation time more effectively and project/practicum activities become more focused, structured, and systematic. The use of this scaffolding can provide alternative media to support practicum activities/projects to be more interesting, creative and innovative. Not only that, this scaffolding can also facilitate students' PjBL learning anywhere and anytime without being influenced by place and time, can foster student interest in learning because it is adjusted to the needs and characteristics of students. Growing student interest in learning is very important so that students continue to be motivated to learn so that whatever PjBL outputs/results are expected to be realized.


Project based learning, project based learning (PjBL), scaffolding


  • Anazifa, R. D., & Djukri, D. Project-Based Learning and Problem-Based Learning: Are They Effective to Improve Student's Thinking Skills?. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, Vol.6, No.2, 346-355.
  • Arvinda, M. N. Pengembangan E-Modul Berbasis Scaffolding Dengan Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle) Pada Materi Momentum Impuls dan Getaran Harmonis Kelas X SMA/MA, 2020.
  • El-Sayed, M. The role of conceptualization and design in product realization.. s.l., s.n, 2011.
  • Glaser, R. E. & Carson, K. M. Chemistry is in News: Taxonomy of Authentic News Media Based Learning. International Journal of Science Education, Vol.27, No.9, pp. 1083-1098, 2005.
  • Jannatu, N., Supartono, S., & Wardani, S. Penerapan Pembelajaran Berbasis Proyek Berbantuan E-Learning untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Siswa. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia, Vol.9, No,2, 2015.
  • Sumarni, W., Wardani, S., Sudarmin, S., & Gupitasari, D. N. Project based learning (PBL) to improve psychomotoric skills: A classroom action research. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, Vol.5, No2, 157-163, 2016.
  • Safaruddin, S., Ibrahim, N., Juhaeni, J., Harmilawati, H., & Qadrianti, L. The Effect of Project-Based Learning Assisted by Electronic Media on Learning Motivation and Science Process Skills. Journal of Innovation in Educational and Cultural Research, Vol.1, No.1, 22-29, 2020.
  • Susilowati, I., Iswari, R. S., & Sukaesih, S. Pengaruh pembelajaran berbasis proyek terhadap hasil belajar siswa materi sistem pencernaan manusia. Journal of Biology Education, Vol.2, No.1, 2013.
  • Suranti, N. M. Y., Gunawan, G., & Sahidu, H. Pengaruh model project based learning berbantuan media virtual terhadap penguasaan konsep peserta didik pada materi alat-alat optik. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika dan Teknologi, Vol.2, No.2, 73-79, 2016.
  • Suwarno, S., Wahidin, W., & Nur, S. H. Project-based learning model assisted by worksheet: It’s effect on students’ creativity and learning outcomes. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), Vol.6, No.1, 113-122, 2020.
  • Slameto, Belajar Dan Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhinya, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 2003. The George Lucas Educational Foundation, Instructional Module Project Based Learning, 2005.Tersedia online dari http://www. modules/PBL/whatpbl.php
  • Tafa, B. Laboratory activities and students practical performance: The case of practical organic chemistry I course of Haramaya University. AJCE, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 47-76, 2012.
  • Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times, John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
  • Witteck, T., Most, B., Kienast, S. & Eilks, I. A lesson plan on ‘methods of separating matter’ based on the Learning company approach – A motivating frame for self-regulated and open laboratory-work in introductory secondary chemistry lessons. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, Vol 8, No. 2, pp. 108-119, 2007.
  • Yahya, N. Model pembelajaran berbasis proyek berbantuan media kultur jaringan untuk meningkatkan aktivitas dan kreativitas siswa kelas XII IPA2 SMA negeri 1 bangsri. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, Vol.3, No.2, 2014.
  • Yusriani, Y., Arsyad, M., & Arafah, K. Kesulitan Guru dalam Mengimplementasikan Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Proyek pada Mata Pelajaran Fisika di SMA Negeri Kota Makassar. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Fisika PPs Universitas Negeri Makassar, Vol. 2, pp. 138-141, 2020.