Comparing the Relationship Between Parenting Styles of High Education Level of Parents with the Level of Emotional Intelligence of Preschool Children


The aims of this study to determine the relationship between parenting styles of parents with higher education level with the level of preschool children’s emotional intelligence. The survey method was used in this study with randomly selected the location at a district of Selangor. The samples of this study consist of 50 preschool children aged six years old and have parents with higher education level. Three types of instruments were used in this study, which is Parenting Practices Questionnaire (PPQ) and Active Parenting Publisher (APP) to identify the types of parenting styles of parents with higher education level, whereas The Sullivan Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children (EISC) to identify the level of preschool children's emotional intelligence. This study also uses Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) as an intermediate medium when collecting data together with the subjects of the study. Descriptive analysis describes the level of preschool children's emotional intelligence, while inferential analysis involves Pearson correlation test to explain the relationship between two variables. The findings showed that parents with higher education level mostly practices an authoritarian parenting style, while overall level of preschool children's emotional intelligence are moderate. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there is significant relationship between all parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) with the level of preschool children's emotional intelligence. The conclusion from this study showed that parenting styles does affects the level of preschool children's emotional intelligence.


Early childhood, emotional intelligence, parenting styles


  • [1] Badzis, M. (2003). Teachers’ and parents’ understanding of the concept of play in child development and education. Retrieved from
  • [2] Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoriative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37(8975), 887–907.
  • [3] Baumrind, D. (1967). Child Care Practices anteceding three patterns of preeschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75(1), 43–88.
  • [4] Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. In P.A. Cowan & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Advances in family research (Vol. 2). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • [5] Bernstein, G., & Triger, Z. (2010). Over-Parenting. UC Davis Law Review, 44(4),1221–1279. Retrieved from§ion=37
  • [6] Bernstein, G., Triger, Z., Journal, P., & Vol, E. (2013). 1221 Electronic copy available at:, 41(4), 1221–1279.
  • [7] Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Attachment (Vol.1).
  • [8] Bowlby, J., & Zeanah, C. H. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (Vol. 178).
  • [9] Bowlby, J. (1982). ATTACHMENT AND LOSS: Retrospect and Prospect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52(4), 664–678.
  • [10] Cline, F. & Fay, J. (1993). Parenting teens with love and logic. Colorado Springs, CO: Pinon Press.
  • [11] Farrell, G. (2015). The Relationship Between Parenting Style and the Level of Emotional Intelligence in Preschool-Aged Children, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
  • [12] Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 9(5), 1091–1100.
  • [13] Grolnick, W. S., & Seal, K. (2008). Pressured Parents, Stressed-Out Kids. Prometheus Books. Retrieved from
  • [14] Hair E., Halle T., Terry-Humen E., Lavelle B., Calkins J. (2006), Children's School Readiness in the ECLS-K: Predictions to Academic, Health, and Social Outcomes in First Grade, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21, 431–54.
  • [15] Honore C., (2008). Under Pressure. Orion Books.
  • [16] Rosemond J., (2014, November). Parental Hovering Delaying Kids’ Adulthood. Hartford Courant, 1–2. Retrieved from
  • [17] Mayer, J. D., and Salovey, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence 17(4): 433-442.
  • [18] Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 60, 197–215.
  • [19] Nord, C., J. Lennon, B. Liu & K. Chandler (1999). Home literacy activities and signs of children’s emerging literacy, 1993 and 1999. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, NCES 2000-026.
  • [20] Rosenfeld, B. A., & Wise, N. (2001). The Over-Scheduled Child:Avoiding the Hyper-Parenting Trap.
  • [21] Sclafani, J. D. (2012). The educated parent 2: Child rearing in the 21st century. The educated parent 2: Child rearing in the 21st century. Retrieved from
  • [22] Teachman, J. D. (1987) Family background, educational resources and educational attainment, American Sociological Review, 52, 548–557.