Determinant of Physical Violence at Household Level in Indonesia


This article examine the influence of type of residence (X1), trust (X2), security conditions (X3), religious activities (D1), market operations (X4), number of village midwives (X5), household access to electricity (X6), the main crops of villagers (D2), and the number of poor households (X7) against physical violence at the household level in Indonesia using the logistic regression method. The source of research data comes from the 5th Wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS). The results of the bivariate analysis indicate that only X1, X6, D2, X7 could be included in multivariate analysis because it is significantly related to Y. Although it is not significantly related to Y, X4 and X5 still including in multivariate analysis because of p < 0.25. The other three independent variables, X2, X3, D1, cannot be included in multivariate analysis because they do not significantly contribute to Y and p > 0.25. The final logistic regression model only contained independent variables and can estimate Y by 6.74% significantly, X2 (4) = 28.79, p <0.01. The final model shows that only D2 and X6 have a negative relationship and explaining Y by -47.3% and 64%, respectively. Whereas X4 and X7, have a positive relationship and explain Y by 78.1% and 110.1%. This finding strengthens the influence of economic factors on physical phenomena on women at the household level. This article recommends to the all-party that concerns to physical violence at the household level, especially government institution at all level, to improve family food resilience, reduce poverty, and increase household electrification while providing media literacy to citizens.


physical violence, IFLS, electrification, household poverty, Indonesia


  • [1] Aisyah, S. (2012). Rereading Patriarchal Interpretations on the Quran from Hadith Perspective in the Eve of Law No. 23/2004 on the Elimination of Domestic Violence. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 6(1), 48–75.
  • [2] Aisyah, S., & Parker, L. (2014). Problematic Conjugations: Women’s Agency, Marriage and Domestic Violence in Indonesia. Asian Studies Review, 38(2), 205–223.
  • [3] Arifianti, L. A. A., Jayanegara, K., Gandhiadi, G. K., & Kencana, E. N. (2017). Identifikasi Faktor-Faktor Pemicu Kekerasan dalam Rumah Tangga di Kota Denpasar. E-Jurnal Matematika, 6(1), 83–89.
  • [4] Asal, V., & Brown, M. (2010). A cross-national exploration of the conditions that produce interpersonal violence. Politics and Policy, 38(2), 175–192.
  • [5] Asmarany, A. I. (2007). Bias Gender Sebagai Prediktor Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga. Jurnal Psikologi, 35(1), 1–20.
  • [6] Babu, B. V, & Kar, S. K. (2009). Domestic violence against women in eastern India: a population-based study on prevalence and related issues. BMC Public Health, 9(129), 1–15.
  • [7] Babu, B. V, & Kar, S. K. (2010). Domestic violence in Eastern India : Factors associated with victimization and perpetration. Public Health, 124(3), 136–148.
  • [8] Benavides, M., León, J., Etesse, M., Espezúa, L., & Stuart, J. (2019). Exploring the association between segregation and physical intimate partner violence in Lima, Peru: The mediating role of gender norms and social capital. SSM - Population Health, 7, 100338.
  • [9] Benson, M. L., Fox, G. L., DeMaris, A., & Van Wyk, J. (2003). Neighborhood Disadvantage, Individual Economic Distress and Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationship. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19(3), 207–235.
  • [10] Blackburn, S. (1999). Gender violence and the Indonesian political transition. Asian Studies Review, 23(4), 433–448.
  • [11] Bruederle, A., Delany-Moretlwe, S., Mmari, K., & Brahmbhatt, H. (2019). Social Support and Its Effects on Adolescent Sexual Risk Taking: A Look at Vulnerable Populations in Baltimore and Johannesburg. Journal of Adolescent Health, 64(1), 56–62.
  • [12] Daoud, N., Sergienko, R., O’Campo, P., & Shoham-Vardi, I. (2017). Disorganization Theory, Neighborhood Social Capital, and Ethnic Inequalities in Intimate Partner Violence between Arab and Jewish Women Citizens of Israel. Journal of Urban Health, 94(5), 648–665.
  • [13] Eidhamar, L. G. (2018). ‘My Husband is My Key to Paradise.’ Attitudes of Muslims in Indonesia and Norway to Spousal Roles and Wife-Beating. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 29(2), 241–264.
  • [14] Everingham, C. (2002). Engendering Time workplace flexibility. Time and Society, 11(2), 335–351.
  • [15] Faizah, N. (2013). Nusyuz: Antara Kekerasan Fisik Dan Seksual. Al-Ahwal, 6(2), 113–128.
  • [16] Fajar, T. (2019). Studi Nielsen: Pemirsa Indonesia Habiskan 5 Jam Nonton TV, 3 Jam Berselancar di Internet. Retrieved August 13, 2019, from
  • [17] Farmer, A., & Tiefenthaler, J. (2006). Review of Social Economy An Economic Analysis of Domestic Violence. Review of Social Economy, 55(3), 337–358.
  • [18] Fatmariza, F. (2012). Fenomena Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan di Dalam Rumah Tangga (Pandangan Mubalig). Humanus, 12(2), 172–180.
  • [19] Fernández-Baldor, Á., Lillo, P., & Boni, A. (2015). Gender, Energy, and Inequalities: A Capabilities Approach Analysis of Renewable Electrification Projects in Peru. In S. Hostettler, A. Gadgil, & E. Hazboun (Eds.), Sustainable Access to Energy in the Global South (pp. 193–204). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • [20] Flood, M., & Pease, B. (2009). Factors Influencing Attitudes to Violence Against Women. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 10(2), 125–142.
  • [21] Fulu, E., Jewkes, R., Roselli, T., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2013). Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: Findings from the UN multi-country cross-sectional study on men and violence in Asia and the Pacific. The Lancet Global Health, 1(4), e187–e207.
  • [22] Gusliana, H. (2010). Penyebab Terjadinya Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga (KDRT) Yang Dilakukan Oleh Suami terhadap Isteri di Kota Pekanbaru. Jurnal Ilmu Hukum, 1(1), 80–93.
  • [23] Hayati, E. N., Emmelin, M., & Eriksson, M. (2014). “We no longer live in the old days”: a qualitative study on the role of masculinity and religion for men’s views on violence within marriage in rural Java, Indonesia. BMC Women’s Health, 14(1), 58.
  • [24] Hayati, E. N., Högberg, U., Hakimi, M., Ellsberg, M. C., & Emmelin, M. (2011). Behind the silence of harmony: Risk factors for physical and sexual violence among women in rural Indonesia. BMC Women’s Health, 11.
  • [25] Johnson, H., Ollus, N., & Nevala, S. (2008). Violence Against Women: An International Perspective. New York, USA: Springer.
  • [26] Komnas Perempuan. (2018). Tergerusnya Ruang Aman Perempuan dalam Pusaran Politik Populisme: Catatan Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan Tahun 2017. Jakarta, Indonesia: Komnas Perempuan.
  • [27] Lockie, S. (2011). Intimate partner abuse and women’s health in rural and mining communities. Rural Society, 20(2), 198–215.
  • [28] Miles-Doan, R. (1998). Violence between spouses and intimates: Does neighborhood context matter? Social Forces, 77(2), 623–645.
  • [29] Misa, L. (2013). Studi Kriminologi Penyelesaian Kekerasan dalam Rumah Tangga. KANUN: Jurnal Ilmu Hukum, 60(15), 297–312.
  • [30] Nilan, P., Demartoto, A., Broom, A., & Germov, J. (2014). Indonesian Men’s Perceptions of Violence Against Women. Violence Against Women, 20(7), 869–888.
  • [31] Noaparast, E. B. (2011). Social Capital, Family Supports and Mental Health among a Female Group in Tehran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2449–2451.
  • [32] Nur Hayati, E., Eriksson, M., Hakimi, M., Högberg, U., & Emmelin, M. (2013). ‘Elastic band strategy’: women’s lived experience of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Global Health Action, 6(1), 18894.
  • [33] Nur, R. (2012). Nilai-Nilai Budaya Lokal dan Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan di Kabupaten Donggala Sulawesi Tenggah. Humaniora, 24(1), 37–49. Retrieved from
  • [34] Parker, L. (2016). The theory and context of the stigmatisation of widows and divorcees (janda) in Indonesia. Indonesia and the Malay World, 44(128), 7–26.
  • [35] Pinchevsky, G. M., & Wright, E. M. (2012). The Impact of Neighborhoods on Intimate Partner Violence and Victimization. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 13(2), 112–132.
  • [36] Pratomo, Y. (2015). Ini acara televisi terbaik dan terburuk versi KPI. Retrieved August 13, 2019, from
  • [37] Pritchett, L., Suryahadi, A., & Sumarto, S. (2000). Quantifying Vulnerability to Poverty: A Proposed Measure, Applied to Indonesia (Policy Research Working Paper No. 2437). Washington D.C., USA.
  • [38] Rofiah, N. (2017). Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga dalam Perspektif Islam. Wawasan: Jurnal Ilmiah Agama Dan Sosial Budaya, 2(1), 31–44.
  • [39] Rojas, Y., & Stickley, A. (2014). Informal social capital in childhood and suicide among adolescent and young adult women: A cross-sectional analysis with 30 countries. Women’s Studies International Forum, 42, 1–8.
  • [40] Sampson, R. J. (1997). Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918–924.
  • [41] Sievert, M. (2015). Rural Electrification and Domestic Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ruhr Economic Papers No. 570). Essen, Germany.
  • [42] Strauss, J., Witoelar, F., & Sikoki, B. (2016). The Fifth Wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey: Overview and Field Report: Volume 1. California, USA: RAND Corporation.
  • [43] United Nations. (1994). Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women. New York, USA: United Nations.
  • [44] Venning, P. (2010). Marrying contested approaches: Empowerment and the imposition ofinternational principles: Domestic violence case resolution in Indonesia. Journal of Development Studies, 46(3), 397–416.
  • [45] Wahyuni, S. (2008). Konsep Nusyuz dan Kekerasan Terhadap Isteri: Perbandingan Hukum Positif dan Fiqh. Al-Ahwal, 1(1), 17–30.
  • [46] World Health Organization. (2002). World report on violence and health. (E. G. Krug, L. L. Dahlberg, J. A. Mercy, A. B. Zwi, & R. Lozano, Eds.). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved from